WTF Fun Fact 13711 – Whales Evolved from Wolves

When we received a fun fact submission suggesting that whales evolved from wolves, we were pretty skeptical. After all, we’ve taken evolutionary biology at the collegiate level—we’re smart people—and that just sounds silly.

Well, so much for that confidence! Researchers believe they really have found proof of this mind-boggling evolutionary relationship.

But whales’ journey from land to sea is one of evolution’s most astonishing tales. This transition didn’t happen overnight. It involved millions of years, with ancient wolf-like creatures at its inception. Today’s whales, creatures of the ocean’s vast expanses, share a lineage with terrestrial mammals. Their story of evolution is a testament to nature’s adaptability and the intricate pathways of evolutionary change.

From Land to Sea

The story starts around 50 million years ago. Imagine a time when the ancestors of whales roamed the earth on four legs. These ancient mammals, resembling wolves, embarked on a journey that would lead them to become the ocean’s giants. The first step in this transformation was a shift in habitat. Early ancestors, known as Pakicetus, lived near water bodies. They gradually ventured into the water for food, driven by survival needs and the abundance of aquatic prey.

As these mammals spent more time in water, natural selection favored traits beneficial for aquatic life. Over millions of years, their body shape began to change. Limbs transformed into flippers, tails became powerful propellers, and their snouts extended to better catch fish. This gradual morphing wasn’t just physical. Changes occurred internally, too, such as the development of a mechanism to drink seawater, filtering out the salt, and adjustments in reproductive behavior to give birth in water.

How Whales Evolved from Wolves

The transformation from land-dwelling to fully aquatic life forms was marked by significant evolutionary milestones. The development of echolocation allowed whales to navigate and hunt in the deep, dark waters of the oceans. Their lungs adapted to allow them to dive deep and stay underwater for extended periods. These adaptations were crucial for survival and exploiting new ecological niches.

One of the most pivotal moments in whale evolution was the emergence of two distinct groups: baleen and toothed whales. Baleen whales, like the blue whale, evolved a unique feeding mechanism using baleen plates to filter small fish and krill from the water. Toothed whales, including orcas and dolphins, pursued a different evolutionary path, focusing on hunting larger prey.

The Legacy of Land-Dwelling Ancestors

Despite their fully aquatic lifestyle, whales retain remnants of their land-dwelling past. Vestigial structures, such as hip bones, hint at their four-legged ancestors. Even their breathing reminds us of their terrestrial origins, as they must come to the surface to breathe air.

The journey from wolf-like creatures to the majestic whales of today is a profound example of evolutionary adaptation. It underscores the dynamic nature of life on Earth and the constant drive for survival that shapes all living beings. Whales’ evolution from land to sea is not just a story of change but a narrative of resilience, innovation, and the enduring bond between all creatures of our planet.

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Source: “Fossil find shows how a wolf turned into a whale” — The Independent

WTF Fun Fact 12829 – Orca Attacks

We’ve all seen orcas (aka Orcinus orca and “killer whales”) in photos, theme parks, or films (Free Willy, for example). They’re big, they’re black and white, and they are generally represented as friendly to humans (despite their name). And, to be fair, despite recent orca attacks, the vast majority of orcas have long been friendly – or at least tolerant – towards humans.

What’s up with the orca attacks?

Two summers ago, in 2020, a group of orcas off the coast of Portugal got agitated and started attacking boats. We don’t know why; we just know that it scared a lot of people to have a humungous animal try to nip at the bottom of their boats to the point of nearly sinking them.

Unfortunately, we can’t get the whales’ side of the story.

But we do know that behavior continued and that boaters of the coasts of both Spain and Portugal have continued to have their boats attacked from below by groups of orcas. And it’s gotten so common and so dangerous that some leisure boaters (the tourists, for the most part) are being asked not to go out into the waters for their own good.

The warnings are generally directed at nighttime boaters, who might sorely want to see the beautiful lights of Porto from the sea on a whimsical sailboat, but who would be putting themselves and rescuers in danger if they needed to be saved from capsizing when it’s dark.

Ok, but they are called “killer whales,” right?

Of course, there’s lots of speculation about why the whales are behaving this way, but most of it is just guessing, which isn’t very helpful (because most of it is uninformed and comes from people who don’t know much about the creatures’ behavior).

Some want to blame humans’ disrespect for the sea. And while you might want to make that case and even have some cold-hard facts to back it up, the whales aren’t down there reading our climate and pollution reports (thankfully). And they have no opinion on yachts or rich people who can afford to go to Portugal and rent a sailboat.

And despite the name “killer whales,” they have no real history of hurting humans (in other words, they don’t eat us). The nickname comes from sailors long ago who saw them preying on other whales and even sharks. After all, they’re pretty enormous (weighing in sometimes at 6 tons – or over 12,000 pounds), and they need big meals.

So-called “killer whales” are apex predators. In other words, nothing preys on them – they’re at the top (or apex) of the food chain. They do kill, they just aren’t known for killing humans.

So, what’s the deal?

In one case, investigators found that two of the orca attacks were “perpetrated” by whales that were injured. Whether or not they were injured by boats and seeking to defend themselves is unclear. It could be the case that they were looking to eradicate what they thought was the source of their pain.

But it doesn’t seem like every orca that has attacked a boat is injured.

In some cases, the whales are also young. So it may be that they have a different and more destructive notion of “play time.”

Whatever the issue is, marine biologists agree that there’s nothing premeditated about the attacks. But they are happening and whatever is going on out there (which is under investigation by professionals), it’s much wiser to cancel the pleasure cruises for now and give them a chance to calm down.

Taking preventative measures is a lot smarter than risking getting rammed by a whale (of any kind).  WTF fun facts

Source: “Orcas Attack So Many Boats Sailors Are Being Told To Stay in Port at Night” — Newsweek